Between 624 and 628, the Muslims were involved in a series of battles for their survival. He died on June 8, 632, at the age of 62, and was buried at al-Masjid an-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) one of the first mosques built by Muhammad in Medina. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to preach and confirm the monotheistic teachings of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. Muhammad was also very religious, occasionally taking journeys of devotion to sacred sites near Mecca. Many Muslims believe that Muhammad is the only individual to have seen both Heaven and Hell while still living. In 610 he experienced a vision of the archangel Gabriel. By 630 he had unified most of Arabia under a single religion. According to Islamic tradition, his father died before Muhammad was born, and his mother died when he was a young child. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Though he was a man, he was far removed from all evil characteristics and strove solely for the sake of God and His reward in the Hereafter. Muhammad was the prophet and founder of Islam. Allah, praise, sanctify and grant… At age 40, he began to have revelations from Allah that became the basis for the Koran and the foundation of Islam. At age 40 he is said to have begun receiving revelations from the angel Gabriel. God Name Allah. By now, Muhammad had plenty of forces and the balance of power had shifted away from the Meccan leaders to him. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. He is believed to be the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Abd al-Muttalib took the responsibility of a guardian. Muhammad, Prophet of Islam and proclaimer of the Qur’an. The treaty was broken by the Meccan allies a year later. Muhammad was the prophet and founder of Islam. She soon became attracted to this young, accomplished man and proposed marriage. the prophet muhammad, prophet muhammad, the prophet muhammad birthday, the prophet muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasallam, the prophet muhammad peace be upon him, the prophet muhammad quotes, the prophet muhammad family tree, the prophet muhammad s birthday holiday, the prophet muhammad full name, the prophet muhammad story, mercy messenger His father died before he was born and he was raised first by his grandfather and then his uncle. Such evidence provides sufficient confirmation of the historical existence of an Arab prophet by the name of Muhammad. Omissions? For example, some of the non-Islamic sources present Muhammad as having still been alive when the Arab conquerors invaded Palestine (634–640), in contrast to the Islamic view that the Prophet had already passed away at this point. Recite for your lord is most generous….” These words became the opening verses of sūrah (chapter) 96 of the Qur'an. An important collector of such early traditions was ʿUrwah ibn al-Zubayr, a relative of ʿĀʾishah who was probably born in 643–644 and who is plausibly viewed as having had firsthand access to former companions of the Prophet. The third wife of the Prophet Muhammad is Aisha bint Abu Bakr. The Story Of Prophet Muhammad: Early Life Of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)In the 570th year of our era a boy was born who was named after Muhammad and who was destined to become the Prophet of one of the greatest religions of the world, Islam. Biography according to the Islamic tradition, Status in the Qurʾān and in post-Qurʾānic Islam,, - Biography of Mohammed, Muhammad - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Muhammad - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). All things considered, there is no compelling reason to suggest that the basic scaffolding of the traditional Islamic account of Muhammad’s life is unhistorical. Increasingly, the resistance to Muhammed and his followers grew and they were eventually forced to emigrate from Mecca to Medina, a city 260 miles to the north in 622. The name of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him “Muhammad” is the name which is repeated many times in the Qur’an, the name “Ahmad” was mentioned by Prophet ^Isa. (pbuh) Prophet Mohammed said: "Whoever is named after me with the hope of being blessed, he will be blessed and will be in peace till the Day of Qiyaamah." Muhammad was born around 570, AD in Mecca (now in Saudi Arabia). Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Vector of arabic calligraphy Solawat. For example, before Muhammad’s emigration to Medina he is said to have received an oath of allegiance by twelve inhabitants of the city, an obvious parallel to the Twelve Apostles, and during the digging of a defensive trench around Medina Muhammad is said to have miraculously sated all the workers from a handful of dates, recalling Jesus’ feeding of the multitude. Updates? Not all lived to adulthood, but one, Fatima, would marry Muhammad’s cousin, Ali ibn Abi Talib, whom Shi’ite Muslims regard as Muhammad’s successor. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quranas well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic re… Thus, statements of the sort that on March 21 of the year 625, Meccan forces entered the oasis of Medina are inherently problematic. He had four daughters and at least two sons (both of whom died as infants) with Khadījah and probably another son (who also died young) by a later wife or concubine, Māriyah. Allah, praise, sanctify and grant peace to one named Muhammad (thepraised), may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.2. The following section will nonetheless provide a concise digest mainly of Ibn Isḥāq’s version of the life of the Prophet. After his clan withdrew its protection, he fled to Medina in 622 and repulsed two attacks by Meccan forces in 625 and 627. As of 2015, there are over 1.8 billion Muslims in the world who profess, “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.”. Muhammad, in full Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, (born c. 570, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]—died June 8, 632, Medina), the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qurʾān. She is the only virgin woman married to the Prophet Muhammad. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Osama bin Laden is a terrorist extremist who planned the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and is intent on driving Western influence from the Muslim world. `Abdul Muttalib took the baby to the Holy Ka'bah, and thanked God for this gift. Nonetheless, some accretion of popular legend around a figure as seminal as Muhammad would be entirely expected. The name Muhammad (ﷺ) was given to the Prophet by his mother and grandfather.. The Angel Gabriel appeared and relayed the word of God: “Recite in the name of your Lord who creates, creates man from a clot! Aisha: Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr, fondly called the ‘Mother of the Believers’, was one of the wives of … Sensing a threat, Mecca’s merchants and leaders offered Muhammad incentives to abandon his preaching, but he refused. According to Islamic tradition, the Qurʾān, understood as a literal transcription of the speech of God (Allah), was revealed to Muhammad in stages by the archangel Gabriel, beginning in 610. The Qurʾān provides very few concrete details regarding Muhammad’s life. 99 NAMES OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD (Pbuh) THE LIST OF 99 NAMES OF MUHAMMAD … He led the Farewell Pilgrimage to Mecca, the precedent for the hajj, in 632, the year of his death. The name-MUHAMMAD was given to him by his grandfather-Abdul-Mutallab, his father-Abdullaahi died when he was two months in his mother's womb. At least to historians who are reluctant to admit reports of divine intervention, the problem is reinforced by the miraculous elements of some of the material included in Ibn Isḥāq’s work. He belonged to a poor but respectable family of the Quraysh tribe. Prophet Mohammed and Aisha married when Aisha was about nine years old, … Get Asma-e-Muhammad (PBUH) in video format Variants of the material compiled by Ibn Isḥāq, as well as further material about events in Muhammad’s life, are preserved in works by other authors, such as Abd al-Razzāq (died 827), al-Wāqidī (died 823), Ibn Saʿd (died 845), and al-Ṭabarī (died 923). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). These are sometimes linked with place-names, such as the passing reference to a victory at a place called Badr at 3:123. The 201 names of our master and Prophet, Muhammad, God's blessings and peace be upon him! Muslim statesman Muhammad Ali Jinnah led Pakistan’s independence from British-controlled India and was its first governor-general and president of its constituent assembly. There Muhammad was instrumental in bringing an end to a civil war raging amongst several of the city’s tribes. Prophet Muhammad's Lineage to Adnaan: The 100 Word Eulogy of the Prophet Muhammad by Emperor Hongwu of China (1368-1398) Professor of Jewish Studies David J Wasserstein: How Islam Saved the Jews: A Notification to the EDL, 'Britain First' and 'Make Britain Great Again' That King Richard II (d. 1400) and King John (d. 1216) Were Not 'Pedophiles' CAIRO- 26 November 2020: A charitable association in an Egyptian village in Gharbia governorate (Delta) launched an initiative to encourage people name their newborn children after Prophet Muhammad. The scholars of Islam said that the Prophet was named “Ahmad” because he is the most grateful among thankful people. Associate Professor of Islamic Studies, University of Oxford. Muezza, the Prophet Muhammad PBUH’s favorite pet cat. In the final major confrontation, The Battle of the Trench and Siege of Medina, Muhammad and his followers prevailed and a treaty was signed. `Name of Prophet Muhammad` Illustration Vector in gold color and maroon background. Working for his uncle, he gained experience in commercial trade traveling to Syria and eventually from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean. Muhammad gave amnesty to many of the Meccan leaders who had opposed him and pardoned many others. In 622 he established the nascent Muslim community in Medina. Most people in Mecca either ignored him or mocked him as just another prophet. Upon his return to Medina to his wife’s home, he fell ill for several days. Certain verses assume that Muhammad and his followers dwell at a settlement called al-madīnah (“the town”) or Yathrib (e.g., 33:13, 60) after having previously been ousted by their unbelieving foes, presumably from the Meccan sanctuary (e.g., 2:191). Hence, even if one accepts that the Qurʾānic corpus authentically documents the preaching of Muhammad, taken by itself it simply does not provide sufficient information for even a concise biographical sketch. Muhammad Ali was a heavyweight boxing champion with an impressive 56-win record. His youngest daughter, Fāṭimah, married Muhammad’s cousin ʿAlī, the fourth of Muhammad’s successors as leader of the Muslim community. Elijah Muhammad rose from poverty to become the charismatic leader of the black nationalist group Nation of Islam, and mentor of Malcolm X and Louis Farrakhan. Muhammad was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam. Those reports are not consistent, however, and some include miraculous elements or stories obviously adapted from the Bible. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini became the supreme religious leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979, following many years of resistance to Shah Pahlavi. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had named him after Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH). John Allen Muhammad became an infamous figure as part of a sniper team that terrorized the Washington, D.C., area for several weeks in October 2002. Although polygamy was then prevalent in Arabic society, he was monogamously married to his first wife, Khadījah, until her death after about 25 years of marriage. The fact that such biographical narratives about Muhammad are encountered only in texts dating from the 8th or 9th century or even later is bound to raise the problem of how confident one can be in the sīrah literature’s claim to relay accurate historical information. However, Shi’a tradition states he welcomed the message from the Angel Gabriel and was deeply inspired to share his experience with other potential believers. Besides her, all the wives of the Prophet Muhammad were widows. Asma-e-Muhammad (saw): Collection of the 99 beautiful names of Holy Prophet Muhammad al-Mustafa (pbuh) with their meanings in English Saturday, December 19, 2020 The Qurʾān yields little concrete biographical information about the Islamic Prophet: it addresses an individual “messenger of God,” whom a number of verses call Muhammad (e.g., 3:144), and speaks of a pilgrimage sanctuary that is associated with the “valley of Mecca” and the Kaʿbah (e.g., 2:124–129, 5:97, 48:24–25). Due to which he altered his soldier’s course. Moreover, a number of rudimentary details about Muhammad are confirmed by non-Islamic sources dating from the first decades after Muhammad’s traditional date of death. Soon, Muhammad began to gather a small following, initially encountering no opposition. All of the prophets were grateful but our Prophet was the most thankful and grateful to his Creator. Mecca hosted a variety of idols and was considered a sacred site focused around the Ka’aba (which is still considered sacred by the Muslims). His public preaching aroused opposition from other clans of his tribe. During the Uhud campaign, it was breastfeeding her kitten. The principle of aniconism (opposition to the use of icons or religious idols) was an early feature of Islam, though under some historical dynasties or in some regions the prohibition was only partially or selectively enforced—e.g., under the ʿAbbāsid dynasty (750–1258) it applied only to public buildings. His clan – Hashim, belonged to a respected tribe – Quraish, his clan (headed by his grandfather – Abd al Mutalib at the time) provided water to the pilgrims traveling to Mecca. He is usually said to have had 14 wives or concubines during his lifetime. Most of his early life was spent as a merchant. Most such information thus comes from the sīrah (“biography”) literature, consisting of accounts of his life by various writers dating mainly from the 8th and 9th centuries. Mohammad. In Muslim families, the name is … After the conflict with Mecca was finally settled, Muhammad took his first true Islamic pilgrimage to that city and in March, 632, he delivered his last sermon at Mount Arafat. From Mo Farah to Mohamed Al Fayed and Muhammad Ali, there is no shortage of high-profile people named after the prophet of Islam. … He was the head of the tribe Quraish. We strive for accuracy and fairness. Certain tensions with the Islamic narrative of the Prophet’s life remain, however. She (Aisha) lived with the Prophet Muhammad for 9 years. Of all the gods worshipped, it is believed that Allah was considered the greatest and the only one without an idol. Our Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) took birth in 570 CE in Makkah. The following are two traditions from the seerah by Ibn Kathir, about the reason behind the name:. He spent his entire life in what is now the country of Saudi Arabia, from his birth about 570 CE in Mecca to his death in 632 in Medina. Moreover, in all his actions and dealings, he was ever mindful and fearful of God. His (S.A.W) father had died before his birth. Many of the tribes living in the Arabian Peninsula at the time were nomadic, trading goods as they crisscrossed the desert. The Prophet Muhammad died when she was 18 years old. More similar stock illustrations. For instance, unlike many earlier Western accounts, no attempt will be made to remove supernatural elements from the narrative in the interest of transforming it into an account that appears plausible by modern historiographical standards. Hafsa was the daughter of Umar ibn Al- Khattab. Most tribes were polytheistic, worshipping their own set of gods. I always thought that "All children who come to the world should carry this name; no other name is as suitable and every family should have one Muhammad." The name of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) mother was Hazrat Bibi Aminah. It truly speaks of the ambiguous nature of Indonesia’s controversial Information and Electronic Transactions Act (UU ITE) that a cleric was reported to the police for alleged violation of the law after he told a story in public that he met with Prophet Muhammad in a dream. Muhammad was the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qurʾān, Islam’s sacred scripture. Author of. Most Islamic historians believe Muhammad was initially disturbed by the revelations and that he didn’t reveal them publicly for several years. He concluded a truce with Mecca in 628 but later forced it to submit. He accepted and over the years the happy union brought several children. Muammar al-Qaddafi seized control of the Libyan government in 1969 and ruled as an authoritarian dictator for more than 40 years before he was overthrown in 2011. Most of his early life was spent as a merchant. Especially the customary chronological framework for Muhammad’s life appears to have been worked out by later transmitters and collectors such as Ibn Isḥāq, rather than being traceable to the earliest layer of Islamic traditions about Muhammad. He undertook his miraculous Night Journey (Isrāʾ) from Mecca to Jerusalem, where he prayed with Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. Hafsah had been married at a young age and participated … "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Islamic tradition holds that the first persons to believe were his wife, Khadija and his close friend Abu Bakr (regarded as the successor to Muhammad by Sunni Muslims). A few days later, `Abdul Muttalib held a feast. Finally, it is distinctly possible that some reports about events in Muhammad’s life emerged not from historical memory but from exegetical speculation about the historical context of particular verses of the Qurʾān. The most famous site was the Kaaba (meaning cube in Arabic). Moreover, some of the narratives in question are patently adaptations of biblical motifs designed to present Muhammad as equal or superior to earlier prophetic figures such as Moses and Jesus. Muhammad is traditionally said to have been born in 570 in Mecca and to have died in 632 in Medina, where he had been forced to emigrate to with his adherents in 622. In his early 20s, Muhammad began working for a wealthy merchant woman named Khadijah, 15 years his senior. However, the text provides no dates for any of the historical events it alludes to, and almost none of the Qurʾānic messenger’s contemporaries are mentioned by name (a rare exception is at 33:37). Tradition holds that when Muhammad had his first vision, he fled from the cave in terror. Muhammad (Arabic: محمد ‎; pronounced ; c. 570 – 8 June 632) was the founder of Islam.